i)North Atlantic routes
ii)Asia- Europe route
iii)the North Pacific route.
iv)the Panama Canal route:
i)Trade control make imports more
expensive and also decreases demand
for imports. However, trade partners
can do the same and increase prices for
ii)Countries will also control trade to spend less on imports if their exports go down.
iii)TO PROTECT “INFANT INDUSTRIES”.
Countries want to give newly developing industries (known as infant industries) time to grow and become
iv)PROTECTION FROM “DUMPING”.
Dumping is when imports are sold at
below average cost of production. It is
generally hard to prove and sometimes
countries impose anti-dumping duties
just to buy more time.
v)TO PROVIDE MORE REVENUE.
Governments gain extra revenue from
tariffs (taxes on imports). A tariff is a
tax on imports. The tariff maybe in the
form of a specific or ad valorem tax.
Settlements in geography are human
settlements ranging from a small village
with a population in the hundreds to large cities with a population in the tens of millions.
i)Stable Rural Settlements:
Any settlement in which most of the
people are engaged in agriculture,
forestry, mining and fishery is known
as a rural settlement.
ii)Site of Settlements:
The site, growth and development of
human settlements are closely influenced by the available soil, water,
forest and mineral resources.
The religious, military, and political
leaders and the dependents needed
food which was supplied by the tribe
through hunting or gathering.
The settlement may also have served
as a place to house women and
children, permitting the men to
wander further in their search for
i)Rural areas provide urban areas with food
ii)Rural areas provide urban areas with unskilled labour
iii)urban area provide rural areas with manufactured goods
iv)urban area provide rural areas with higher education
v)Rural areas provide urban areas with raw materials
Factors Influencing Industrial Location
1. Availability of raw materials: In determining
the location of an industry, nearness to sources
of raw material is of vital importance.
2. Availability of Labour: Adequate supply of
cheap and skilled labour is necessary for and
industry. The attraction of an industry towards
labour centres depends on the ratio of labour cost
to the total cost of production which Weber calls
‘Labour cost of Index’.
3. Proximity to Markets: Access to markets is an
important factor which the entrepreneur must
take into consideration. Industries producing
perishable or bulky commodities which cannot be
transported over long distance are generally
located in close proximity to markets. Industries
located near the markets could be able to reduce
the costs of transport in distributing the finished
product as in the case of bread and bakery, ice,
tins, cans manufacturing, etc. Accessibility of
markets is more important in the case of
industries manufacturing consumer goods rather
than producer goods.
4. Transport Facilities: Transport facilities,
generally, influence the location of industry. The
transportation with its three modes, i.e., water,
road, and rail collectively plays an important role.
So the junction points of water-ways, roadways
and railways become humming centres of
industrial activity. Further, the modes and rates of
transport and transport policy of Government
considerably affect the location of industrial units.
The heavy concentration of cotton textile industry
in Bombay has been due to the cheap and
excellent transportation network both in regard to
raw materials and markets.
5. Power: Another factor influencing the location
of an industry is the availability of cheap power.
Water, wind, coal, gas, oil and electricity are the
chief sources of power. Both water and wind
power were widely sought at sources of power
supply before the invention of steam engine.
During the nineteenth century, nearness to coal-
fields became the principal locating influence on
the setting up of new industries, particularly, for
heavy industries. With the introduction of other
sources of power like electricity, gas, oil, etc. the
power factor became more flexible leading to
dispersal and decentralization of industries.
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